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治疗方式

洗肾病人要如何吃得健康?

由于肾脏无法很好的运作, 均衡的饮食对于洗肾病人和末期肾衰竭病人至关重要。均衡的饮食包括了适量的蛋白质、热量、水分、维生素和矿物质。

切记:
摄取适量的热量·
  • 摄取适量的热量 (卡路里) 有益于整体健康。
  • 个人所需要的热量随着年龄、性别、体型大小、运动量和健康状况而有所不同。
  • 腹膜透析病人请注意: 由于腹膜透析病人使用的透析液含有碳水化合物(糖), 因此这无形中会增加额外的热量摄入。 为了防止摄入过量的卡路里, 病人可能需要减少每日碳水化合物的摄取。 请向您的营养师或医生咨询您所使用的腹膜透析液的卡路里含量。
足够的蛋白质
  • 人体需要蛋白质以制造肌肉和修补细胞组织。
  • 由于在腹膜或血液透析的过程中, 人体将流失一些蛋白质, 因此病人需要摄取较多的蛋白质。
  • 如果蛋白质摄取不足, 这将导致体重下降、肌肉流失、免疫力减退和营养不良。
  • 蛋白质可分为两种:优质蛋白质和低质量蛋白质。
    • 优质蛋白质的食物包括肉类、家禽、鱼和蛋白
    • 大多数的乳制品, 如酸奶、牛奶和芝士与黄豆类食品都含有优质蛋白质
    • 摄取正确和足够的蛋白质对于维持洗肾病人的健康至关重要

注意!优质蛋白质的食物大多含有较高的磷, 洗肾病人在用餐时都必须服用缚磷素。

低磷饮食·
  • 当肾脏功能退化时, 磷将无法有效地从体内排出, 导致血液中的磷增加。
  • 当磷开始在血液中累积时, 会刺激骨头把钙质释放入血液中。血液中的钙和磷会结合成一种坚硬的物质沉积在身体组织里,进而导致皮肤痒、关节疼痛、眼睛不适和血管硬化。久而久之, 患者的骨骼变得脆弱易碎, 这会造成骨折和持续性的疼痛。
  • 由于血管硬化 (血管钙化), 长期高血磷的病人有较高的心血管疾病死亡风险。
  • 血液和腹膜透析病人都需要控制饮食中所摄取的磷。 病人必须按照医疗指示服用缚磷素, 以减少身体对食物中的磷的吸收。
  • 避免食用以下的高磷食物:
    • 乳制品, 例如: 牛奶、芝士、酸奶
    • 骨头熬炖的汤底, 例如: 鸡爪、猪骨
    • 豆类食品, 例如: 各种坚果、种籽、红/绿豆汤
    • 可乐
    • 可可和制成品
    • 麦芽饮料, 例如: 美禄 (Milo)、好立克 (Horlicks)、阿华田 (Ovaltine)
  • 加工和罐头食品, 例如: 肉或鱼类的罐头食品、香肠、肉饼
  • 动物内脏, 例如: 肝、肠
  • 罐头沙丁鱼、江鱼仔和虾酱
  •  
  •  
  • 钾是一种矿物质, 对保持神经和肌肉的正常功能有着重要作用。
  • 血液中的钾需要保持在安全水平。血钾含量过低或过高都有着一定的风险, 因为这可能会导致心脏骤停。
  • 低血钾的一些症状包括肌肉痉挛、呼吸困难和心跳不规律, 而高血钾则会导致肌肉无力、心率异常, 在极端情况下, 还可能引发心脏衰竭。
  • 由于腹膜透析病人每天进行透析疗程, 因此能更有效地清除血液中的钾。大致上, 腹膜透析病人不需要像血液透析病人那样严格地限制钾的摄取。
  • 血液透析病人可能会有高血钾的问题而危及生命, 因此血液透析病人需要限制日常饮食中钾的摄取。
  • 食物中的钾主要来自于水果和蔬菜、坚果、豆类和乳制品也含有较多的钾。
  • 其他的高钾食物包括:
    • 高钾含量的水果和蔬菜
    • 全麦或未精制的谷粮、面包和饼干
    • 坚果、种籽和制成品, 例如: 巧克力、花生酱
    • 椰子和制成品, 例如: 椰浆、咖椰(Kaya)
    • 罐装/新鲜蔬果汁、传统草药、浓咖啡、浓茶、可可 / 麦芽饮料
    • 牛奶
    • 酒精饮品
    • 椰糖、糖蜜、枫糖、太妃糖、甘草
    • 高钾含量的代盐、瓶装酱料、浓缩蔬菜汁/肉汁、鸡精、浓缩汤块

小贴士!您可以把切好的蔬菜浸泡在水中一到两小时, 然后把水分沥干烹煮, 以减少食物中的钾含量。

低钠饮食
  • 钠天然存在于几乎所有食物里。多数加工和包装食品中都含有钠,而盐则是膳食中钠的主要来源之一。
  • 摄取太多的钠会增加口渴的感觉,因而导致病人喝太多水。
  • 摄入过多的水分将使体重增加,并导致血压升高,加重心脏的负担。
  • 限制钠的摄取将帮助肾脏病人维持正常的体液平衡。
  • 减少钠摄入量的小贴士:
    • 限制烹调时所加入的盐/酱料
    • 避免使用味精块和浓缩肉和菜汁, 例如:保卫尔牛肉汁 (Bovril)、妈蜜(Marmite)
    • 避免食用瓶装浓缩鸡精
    • 阅读食品的营养标签,选择每100克食品中钠含量低于120毫克的食品
    • 减少食用罐头和加工食品。如无法避免,可在食用前把盐水沥干
    • 在烹煮时,使用香料或天然调味料来取代盐/酱料
    • 使用新鲜酸柑、柠檬汁或醋来提升食物的味道

注意!肾脏病人应谨慎使用盐替代品,因为它们的钾含量通常很高,不应在未咨询医生或营养师的情况下使用。

控制水分摄入量
  • 由于肾脏功能衰退, 洗肾病人的尿量也随着减少。因此, 洗肾病人必须限制他们的水分摄入量。
  • 多余的水分将滞留在体内。这可导致呼吸急促、高血压和腿部肿胀的症状。
  • 腹膜和血液透析病人在决定水分摄取量时需要把排尿量、剩余的肾脏功能和体型纳入考量。
  • 腹膜透析病人也需要观察在交换透析液的过程中所排出的液体量。
  • 血液透析病人可以利用在两次洗肾期间增加的体重来当作一个标准。
  • 基于各人排尿量不同, 透析病人一般的建议水分摄取量是介于500毫升至1000毫升之间。
  • 每日水分摄取的来源应该包括水、茶、咖啡、牛奶、肉汁、汤和粥。其他水分的来源也包括在室温下为液体状的食物, 如冰块、冰淇淋和果冻。

注意!洗肾病人必须遵守护士、营养师或医生所建议的水分摄取量。

预防贫血
  • 由于肾功能受损,因此贫血在洗肾病人中十分常见。
  • 由肾脏产生的红细胞生成素 (EPO) 能促使骨髓制造红血球。当肾脏功能下降时, EPO的生成量也就随之减少。
  • 其它导致洗肾病人贫血的因素包括:
    • 尿毒素的累积而减短了红血球的寿命
    • 营养不良
    • 缺乏铁质
    • 缺乏叶酸和其他维生素
    • 血液透析过程中的血液流失
  • 贫血的症状包括了疲劳、虚弱、头晕、头痛、免疫力低、呼吸困难或呼吸急促、胸口疼痛、食欲不振和面容苍白。

小贴士!摄取足够的蛋白质、铁质、维生素C、维生素B12和叶酸对于预防和治疗贫血极为重要,因为这些营养素是制造红血球的主要元素。

*上述信息和建议仅供参考, 不应作为或被视为对任何个人的具体建议。 如有任何疑问或担忧, 请咨询您的医生或其他医疗保健顾问。

洗肾病友的食谱

均衡的饮食对于洗肾病人的健康十分重要, 因此他们需要摄取适当和适量的食物。 洗肾病人应每天摄取适量的蛋白质、热量、水分、维生素和矿物质以维持均衡的饮食。以下是适合洗肾病人参考的食谱。 如有饮食上的疑问,请您向您的营养师咨询。

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The overall application review process will take approximately 6 months before the applicant can start the first dialysis treatment. However, if the applicant is able to provide all completed supporting documents and if there is a slot available at the dialysis centre with a right match to the time slot, the waiting time could be shorter.

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Means Test subsidies calculation is based in accordance to MOH guidelines.

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The Medical Social Workers at your hospital will be able to advise you on the different type of subsidies based on your financial situation.

Kidney Live Donor Support Fund

For information on kidney donation in Singapore, you may wish to contact the National Organ Transplant Unit at Tel: 6321 4390 or email organ.transplant@notu.com.sg.

NKF’s Kidney Live Donor Support Fund covers annual health screenings and medical follow-ups; one-time reimbursement for loss of 2 months actual income of $8,500, whichever is lower: reimbursement of hospitalisation and surgical insurance premiums (capped at MediShield Life premiums); pre-transplant screening and evaluation costs for up to 2 potential donors per kidney recipient; and insurance coverage for Group Living. Policy based on sum insured of $200,000.

For more information and eligibility, please click here. 

Donation & Volunteering

You can make the donation through different platforms:

  1. For online donation: please visit https://nkfs.org/support-us/donation-programmes/
  2. Or you may like to issue a cheque made payable to “The National Kidney Foundation” or “NKF” and mail it to us at 81 Kim Keat Road, Singapore 328836.
  3. Alternatively, you may contact us at 1800-KIDNEYS (5436397) or email us at lifedrops@nkfs.org to send you the donation form.
  4. Road Singapore 328836.

Thank you for your generosity. The cheque should be issued to “The National Kidney Foundation” or “NKF”.

Thank you for bequeathing your CPF contributions to NKF. You can fill up the CPF nomination form which can be downloaded from the CPF website. NKF’s UEN is 200104750M.

Thank you for your generosity. You may like to visit the Ministry of Law’s website where you can find a list of lawyers based in Singapore. Please visit https://eservices.mlaw.gov.sg/lsra/search-lawyer-or-law-firm/

Our UEN/ Company Registration No. / GST Registration No. is 200104750M.

Please send us an email at lifedrops@nkfs.org or call us at 1800-KIDNEYS (5436397) and we will assist you accordingly.

You may email your new mailing address to lifedrops@nkfs.org , Please include your full name, contact number, old mailing address and UEN or NRIC/FIN (last 3 digits)

You may email us at lifedrops@nkfs.org to get the donation form. Please fill up your new GIRO/credit card number, donation amount and sign the form. Thereafter, post the GIRO form back to NKF for processing.

For credit card, you may wish to scan the form and send it to NKF via either of these options:

Email – lifedrops@nkfs.org

Fax – 6253 0417

Mail – 81 Kim Keat Road, Singapore 328836

Please email us at lifedrops@nkfs.org with your full name, UEN/NRIC/FIN and mailing address.

Please email us at lifedrops@nkfs.org to have the termination form sent to you. Please fill it up and send it back to us for processing and auditing purposes.

All outright cash donations to NKF are entitled to tax deduction because NKF is a registered charity with an IPC (Institutions of Public Character) status. We are able to issue tax deductible receipts for qualifying donations to our donors.

You are entitled to a tax deduction of 2.5 times the value of your donation in the preceding year.

You may sign up via our website at https://onlinereg.nkfs.org/vms/volunteerapplicationform.aspx.

If you do not have access to the internet, please call us at 1800-KIDNEYS (5436397) to have the application form sent to you. Please fill it up and send it back to us at 81 Kim Keat Road Singapore 328836.

Once we receive your application, our colleague from the Donor and Volunteer Management Department will contact you for a phone interview. After which, you will be invited to attend our volunteer orientation. This is to allow you to have a better understanding of the volunteering activities.

The minimum age is 13 years old. For volunteers who are below the age of 21, you will need to get parental consent. You may download the consent form here.

We strongly encourage our volunteers to commit at least a year so that we can better support our patients. Our programmes and activities are flexible, you can choose your volunteering schedule according to your interest and availability.

You may volunteer with us basing on your availability. We will send a weekly email to our volunteers indicating the up-coming volunteering opportunities. You can then match your availability to the activity schedule.

We have an array of volunteering activities to suit your interest and availability. To learn more about the volunteering activities we offer, please visit https://nkfs.org/support-us/volunteer-programmes/.

Anyone and everyone can join us as a volunteer. All applicants will be required to undergo a mandatory orientation session where you will gain insights into the Foundation’s cause, kidney disease as well as learn more about the volunteering activities we offer. Regular trainings are also conducted for all volunteers so that they can better perform their role.

Most definitely! We welcome schools, companies and community groups to volunteer with us as part of their Values In Action and Corporate Social Responsibility activities. Please get in touch with us on your interest by sending an email to volunteer@nkfs.org.

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