Blood pressure is the force of the blood as it flows through the blood vessels and the heart. Hypertension or high blood pressure is defined as blood pressure consistently exceeding 140/90mmHg when the person is at rest. Factors that can cause high blood pressure are having extra fluid in the blood and blood vessels that are narrow, stiff, or clogged.
High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the kidneys, reducing their ability to work properly. They may then be unable to remove waste and extra fluid from the body. Extra fluid in the blood vessels may further increase blood pressure even more, creating a vicious cycle that could damage the kidneys.
Over 1 in 3* Singaporean adults have hypertension. Hypertension can be broadly divided into two types: In essential Hypertension (95% of all cases of Hypertension), strong genetic and environmental factors lead to Hypertension. In secondary Hypertension (5% of all cases of HBP), an identifiable cause exists such as kidney disease, endocrine disorder and drugs intake.
The kidney has a major role in the maintenance of blood pressure. Kidney disease may affect the functions of the kidneys to the point that impairs this, resulting in the increase of blood pressure. Vice-versa, hypertension can lead to kidney failure or worsen existing kidney diseases. If uncontrolled, the progression to kidney failure is much quicker.
*Singapore Population Health Survey 2020